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Short Term Changes in Dietary Fat Content and Metformin Treatment During
Lactation Impact Milk Composition and Mammary Gland Morphology.
Authors Carlson Z, Hafner H, Habbal NE, Harman E, Liu S, Botezatu N, Alharastani M,
Rivet C, Reynolds H, Both N, Sun H, Bridges D, Gregg B
Submitted By Submitted Externally on 6/21/2022
Status Published
Journal Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia
Year 2022
Date Published 3/1/2022
Volume : Pages 27 : 1 - 18
PubMed Reference 35137304
Abstract Maternal health and diet can have important consequences for offspring nutrition
and metabolic health. During lactation, signals are communicated from the mother
to the infant through milk via macronutrients, hormones, and bioactive
molecules. In this study we designed experiments to probe the mother-milk-infant
triad in the condition of normal maternal health and upon exposure to high fat
diet (HFD) with or without concurrent metformin exposure. We examined maternal
characteristics, milk composition and offspring metabolic parameters on
postnatal day 16, prior to offspring weaning. We found that lactational HFD
increased maternal adipose tissue weight, mammary gland adipocyte size, and
altered milk lipid composition causing a higher amount of omega-6 (n6) long
chain fatty acids and lower omega-3 (n3). Offspring of HFD dams were heavier
with more body fat during suckling. Metformin (Met) exposure decreased maternal
blood glucose and several milk amino acids. Offspring of met dams were smaller
during suckling. Gene expression in the lactating mammary glands was impacted to
a greater extent by metformin than HFD, but both metformin and HFD altered genes
related to muscle contraction, indicating that these genes may be more
susceptible to lactational stressors. Our study demonstrates the impact of
common maternal exposures during lactation on milk composition, mammary gland
function and offspring growth with metformin having little capacity to rescue
the offspring from the effects of a maternal HFD during lactation.


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